The kowari, Dasyuroides byrnei, is a carnivorous dasyurid marsupial that occurs in arid Australia. The species is currently listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. This research describes the kowari’s population dynamics in what is possibly one of its last refuges, the Clifton Hills cattle station in the Sturt Stony Desert of South Australia. Our results suggest that if the trends we observed also occur elsewhere in the kowari’s total range, it would be eligible for listing on the IUCN Red List as Endangered. We make recommendations for urgent research to: • determine the exact nature of the threats • control predators and fence from cattle • undertake captive breeding programs in predator- proof reserves to act as insurance populations.