This book provides an overview of the key new insights associated with the biodiversity values of replanted/restored vegetation. It is based on the past 19 years of detailed long-term research in the temperate woodlands (wheat-sheep) belt of eastern Australia. The book is intended to provide key guidelines for ensuring best practice restoration efforts in temperate agricultural environments in Australia, particularly those widespread environments that have been heavily cleared and which have been targeted for revegetation programs. What is distinctive about this book is the accumulated long-term sets of perspectives on how to best do restoration plantings - a key issue that is a repeated source of questions from farmers, NRM professionals, policy makers and the lay public. No other book in Australia is underpinned by the array of major long-term studies and insights that will form the platform for this book.