The buff-breasted button-quail is one of Australia’s rarest and most threatened birds. Contemporary research on this species has suggested a wide geographical distribution and seemingly stable, but low population size. Extensive survey effort conducted from 2018 to 2021 during this project has failed to locate a single population. Further, an investigation into the veracity of all contemporary research and reports has indicated the last confirmed record dates from the early 1920s. It is therefore reasonable to suggest there has been a decline in the population of this species. This report highlights the likely dire conservation status of the buff-breasted button-quail and recommends where further research and survey effort is required.