This editorial introduces a special issue of Wildlife Research. The domestic cat (Felis catus) is an invasive species with severe impacts on the world’s biodiversity. It is also a much-loved pet, and has a large and vocal constituency that preference saving the lives of cats above wildlife conservation. Given these conflicting perspectives, the management of cats is a contested and polarising subject (Loss et al. 2018). Evidence is critical for resolving this debate and for developing more effective management options. Volume 47 Issue 8 of Wildlife Research aims to compile and integrate much of the recent proliferation of research into diverse aspects of cat ecology, impacts and management undertaken in Australia and nearby areas. We hope that this collation helps responsible agencies and the community, in Australia and elsewhere, to gain a better understanding of cats and their impacts, and how those impacts can be reduced.