Eucalyptus argophloia is a species with a small geographic range occurring in a productive landscape with a subhumid climate. The past distribution of the species was assessed from remnant vegetation and standing paddock trees. The species grows in three specific vegetation types within its geographic range, and based on densities in remnant vegetation and reduction of habitat, it is estimated that the population has been reduced by 94.2%. There is very little regeneration of the species including on ungrazed roadsides, and further decline of the species is expected. The species can be categorised under IUCN Red Listing criteria as Critically Endangered. The present study provides a method for using habitat association, population decline and stand structure for conservation assessment of threatened tree species in productive landscapes.