More than 90% of Australian plant species are found nowhere else in the world. Plants comprise over 70% of all species listed as threatened in this country. We compiled a list of the Australian plant species that are experiencing the most severe population declines, and outlined research and management actions to help prevent their extinctions. Threats to these species varied depending on location but were primarily habitat clearance and degradation, limited recruitment, inappropriate disturbances such as fire and herbivory, disease and climate change. To prevent extinctions a range of actions will be needed, including improving habitat quality, managing herbivores, weeds and disease, improving fire management, increasing monitoring, conducting targeted scientific research, establishing ex situ seed banks, undertaking translocations, purchasing land in perpetual conservation agreements, and continuing to align state and federal conservation status listings.