The forty-spotted pardalote is endemic to Tasmania, where it has been lost from most of its former range, and is now largely confined to a small number of offshore islands. These islands are serving as refuges for the Endangered bird; however, what caused the contraction to these places and why they still support viable populations has not been well understood. This study assessed the range and severity of the threats to the persistence of the forty-spotted pardalote, established its population status, and produced recommendations to guide the planning of trial reintroductions of the species across its former range. We identified large areas of suitable habitat that are too distant for natural recolonisation. To protect the species from the threat of extinction, we recommend that new populations of forty-spotted pardalotes be established immediately in these new sites via reintroductions while robust source populations still exist.