Australia is home to thousands of unique plant species, yet faces significant challenges in protecting them.
The figures are stark: around 1100 plant species (approximately 5% of Australia’s known total) are listed as Endangered or Critically Endangered under Australian state and federal laws. A fifth of these survive in only a single population, and 100 (11%) are represented by fewer than 100 plants.
University of Queensland post-doctoral research fellow Jennifer Silcock is tasked with interviewing threatened-plant experts nationwide to determine which plants should be placed on the Threatened Species Recovery Hub’s national Red Hot List.
“The Red Hot List will identify Australia’s most imperilled plant species, potential conservation actions, and alert relevant community groups, scientists and landholders, as well as provide an overview of how we’re going with plant conservation,” says Jen, who has interviewed over 40 botanists to date in her research for TSR Hub Project 2.4.
She expects to consult with up to 200 plant scientists and conservation managers before the project’s completion in December 2017.
To be eligible for the Red Hot List, a species must be rare and suffering an ongoing decline for which there are achievable recovery actions.
“It’s not enough for people to just say ‘we think it’s in trouble,’ or for it be a rare species from a naturally small population. We need to back up this list with solid data.”
Consequently, she is pursuing interviews with the experts who have been in the field for decades, painstakingly observing and measuring plant species year after year.
During semi-structured interviews, botanists nominate the plants they think are in the most trouble, and specify reasons why. The approach has some distinct advantages over group workshops.
“For every plant, there are often just one or two people who have the best knowledge of its biology and conservation. In a workshop scenario the most confident and articulate people tend to dominate the outcomes, which can lead to a bias in the plants that we choose to focus on,” says Jen.
“The people I am talking to are the ones responsible for leading and implementing the on-ground response to declines. During the interview process, I can push them a little bit harder to establish their priorities.”
Red Hot plants are typically located in areas that have high concentrations of endemic species and have been subject to major habitat loss or modification, typically through land clearing for urban development or agriculture. Other major threats are diseases such as phytophthora and myrtle rust.
“The Western Australian wheatbelt region is the archetypal example; where unique species have evolved uninterrupted over a long time in a stable, relatively wet, isolated climate. It is Australia’s only global biodiversity hotspot – a region of significant biodiversity under threat from human activities,” says Jen.
“The Red Hot List will highlight the plight of these species, as well as what needs to happen to ensure their survival.”
Image: guichenotia seorsiflora by Andrew Crawford from WA's Department of Parks and Wildlife
One million species threatened with extinction worldwide. That was the attention-grabbing headline that recently (and, sadly, briefly) captured the world’s attention, when the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services (IPBES) released its first global assessment of how the planet’s biodiversity is faring – and what that means for people.
The Alligator Rivers yellow chat is a small, bright yellow insectivorous bird of the Kakadu floodplains. This Endangered species is imperilled by habitat changes caused by altered fire regimes, buffalo and feral pigs, rising sea levels and the spread of weeds like prickly mimosa and introduced grasses. What has been happening to degrade these floodplains has been equally of concern to Traditional Owners as to yellow chat researchers.
The central purpose of the Threatened Species Recovery Hub is delivering research that is relevant for and useable by decision-makers, land managers and others responsible for recovering threatened species. Working with partners is vital if we’re to achieve this.
The native forest on Norfolk Island provides vital habitat for the island’s threatened plant and bird species, many of which are found nowhere else on the planet (also called endemic). When the British colonised Norfolk Island in 1788, they cleared much of the original vegetation. Remaining forest is now protected in the national park and reserves, but plant recruitment is poor and invasive non-native plant species would likely overtake the forest without the on-going efforts of park managers. To preserve remaining forest, it is important to determine the main causes of declines and the most effective actions that managers can take to address these threats and restore native vegetation.
The Threatened Species Recovery Hub is celebrating great conservation outcomes from projects taking place in Booderee National Park for two Endangered species: the eastern bristlebird and the southern brown bandicoot (eastern subspecies). The Australian National University’s David Lindenmayer and Chris MacGregor give us the scoop on the bristlebird and Natasha Robinson shares the good news about the southern brown bandicoot.